What are the Causes Of male Infertility?
What are the factors that can cause male infertility?
Causes of male Infertility includes:
- Erectile dysfunction
- Retarded ejaculation
- Retrograde ejaculation
- Reduced sperm quality
- Hypogonadism (low testosterone levels)
Infertility is prevalent in about 10%-25% of couples in their reproductive age. 60-80 million infertile couples are present globally. Out of which 10%-30% are associated with problem of the male partner. Several diseases contributes to male infertility and one of important disease is diabetes mellitus (DM).
Low sperm count or abnormal sperm function may be caused by –
- High Sugar Levels – Diabetes can cause infertility which is seen commonly – which can be controlled by life style modification and if required with medications.
- INFECTIONS –
- Prior bacterial
- viral infections – mumps or adenovirus
- CHEMICALS EXPOSURE –
- ADDICTIONS –
- marijuana use
- tobacco smoke
- Use of Steroids
- Surgical removal of one of the testicles due to cancer or some other disease.
- Undescended testicles
- Genetic defects/DNA damage – cause abnormal function of sperms
- Trauma or prior surgeries on the testicles or inguinal region.
- VARICOCELES – Enlarged veins (varicoceles) in the testes. It can increase blood flow and heat both of which affect the number and shape of the sperm
Problems with the delivery of sperm and subsequent fertilization :
- Premature ejaculation
- Damage or injury to the reproductive organs
- RETROGRADE EJACULATION – Semen entering the bladder instead of emerging through the penis during orgasm.
- Certain genetic diseases -Ex-cystic fibrosis
Alcohol and Inertility
- In pregnancy includes – congenital anomalies and pregnancy loss.
- The harmful effects of alcohol on fertility in both women and men are mostly due to alcohol’s impact on
- Ovarian reserve in women,
- Heavy drinking can reduce men’s sex drive, affect the quality of sperm and cause impotence.
Alcohol consumption and male infertility.
Alcohol consumption in men
- Reduced gonadotropin release,
- testicular atrophy,
- decreased testosterone and sperm production
- studies of men who drink heavily have documented increases in gonadotropins and estradiol, independent of liver disease, with decreased testosterone as a consistent finding .
- Alcoholism is also associated with liver dysfunction as a result it can result in hormonal disturbances due to the inability to metabolize estrogens.
- A decrease in the quality of semen parameters seen in heavy consumers of alcohol.
- Occasional azoospermia
- Sexual dysfunction and issues with arousal and desire.
- Erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction.
All the above factors leads to MALE INFERTILITY.