Vaccines For Adults

What are the vaccines  and which vaccines should be considered for adults  for adults?

What are vaccines?

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.

What are the constituents of vaccine?

A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins.

How the vaccines work?

Vaccine stimulates the immune system in the body to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and gives protection for  future encounter.

What is vaccination?

The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases.

Can a person develop the disease against which he is vaccinated?

Yes , rarely it can happen but usually it will be less virulent than in case of unvaccinated patient.

What is breakthrough infection?

If a vaccinated individual does develop the disease which he is vaccinated against  it is called breakthrough infection.

What are the vaccines a adult need commonly?

Vaccines a adult need commonly to prevent infection.

You need immunizations for protection against:

  • Seasonal influenza (flu) for all adults
  • Tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough) for all adults who have not previously received a Tdap vaccine
  • Shingles for healthy adults age 50 years and older
  • Pneumococcal for adults age 65 years and older and adults with risk conditions
  • Hepatitis B for adults who have diabetes or are at risk
  • Other vaccinations you may need include those that protect against HPV (human papillomavirus, which can cause certain cancers), hepatitis A, meningococcal disease, chickenpox (varicella), and measles, mumps, and rubella.

Vaccines For Adults
Vaccines For Adults

Is vaccination safe for patients?

In general Vaccination in childhood is safe and helpful against the disease it is created.

Some side effects are seen. Fever, pain around the injection site, and muscle aches are common and tolerable side effects. Additionally, some individuals may be allergic to ingredients in the vaccine.

MMR vaccine is rarely associated with febrile seizures.

Varicella vaccine is rarely associated with complications in immunodeficient individuals.

Severe side effects are extremely rare.  

What are the types of pneumococcal vaccines?

There are two types of pneumococcal vaccine, a conjugate vaccine containing 13 serotypes and a polysaccharide vaccine containing 23 serotypes.

A combination of these two serially is recommended in adults with certain comorbidities.

What are the vaccination to be considered for adults ?

  • Influenza vaccination
  • Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap or Td) vaccination
  • Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccination
  • Varicella vaccination
  • Zoster (recombinant zoster vaccine [RZV] and zoster vaccine live [ZVL]) vaccination
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination
  • Pneumococcal (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV13] and 23-valent pneumococcal poly-saccharide vaccine [PPSV23]) vaccination
  • Hepatitis A vaccination
  • Hepatitis B vaccination
  • Meningococcal (Serogroups A, C, W, and Y [MenACWY] or serogroup B [MenB]) vaccination
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination

Who should receive Influenza vaccination?

WHO recommends annual vaccination for :

  • Pregnant women at any stage of pregnancy
  • Children aged 6 months to 5 years
  • Elderly individuals (≥65 years of age)
  • Individuals with chronic medical conditions
  • cardiovascular or pulmonary systems
  • asthma
  • chronic metabolic diseases
  • diabetes mellitus
  • renal or hepatic dysfunction,
  • Hemoglobinopathies
  • immunocompromised
  • health-care workers

Who should get pneumococcal vaccines?

Persons without any risk factors at age morethan 65 years should get the vaccine.

Patients with following medical conditions  should take vaccine.

  • Chronic heart disease
  • chronic lung disease
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Cerebrospinal fluid leak
  • Cochlear implant
  • Alcoholism
  • Chronic liver disease
  • Cirrhosis
  • Cigarette smoking

What are the recommended Vaccines for Hajj pilgrims ?

Vaccine recommendations for Hajj pilgrims  

Meningococcal  – Mandatory

Influenza – Recommended

Yellow fever-  Endemic countries

Pneumococcal Recommended for > 65 years

Hepatitis A Recommended

Hepatitis B Recommended

What are vaccines for HEALTH CARE WORKERS ?

The following vaccines are advised for all susceptible health care workers-

  • Hepatitis B
  • Influenza
  • MMR
  • Varicella
  • Tdap