Risk of Diabetes in PCOS
PCOS, considered one of the most common endocrine conditions in women of childbearing age, may be present in up to 20% of women of reproductive age. The majority of cases of PCOS are undiagnosed.Risk factors for PCOS included age between 25 and 34 years, a history of infertility, the presence of metabolic syndrome, and use of oral contraceptive pills. PCOS is usually diagnosed by presence of at least 2 features out of the following-
1)Disorder of ovulation like anovulation or oligo ovulation
2) High levels of androgen in the body reflecting in increased body hair ,acne or hoarseness of voice
3) Polycystic ovaries in ultrasound
It is found out that risk of diabetes is 4 times higher in women with PCOS than in non PCOS women. Although the exact cause of higher incidence in PCOS is not known following may be few reasons for development of Diabetes;
1) Many women with PCOS are obese and follow a sedentary lifestyle.
2) Prolonged period of lack of ovulation and amenorrhoea causes body to be exposed to elevated estradiol level for long time.
3) Oral contraceptives, often used to treat hyperandrogenism and irregular menses in PCOS, increased the risk for type 2 diabetes in the PCOS .
4)PCOS women have strong family history of PCO and Diabetes
5) Often these women face infertility issues and go through fertility treatment for years together which again predisposes to risk of diabetes.
6) PCO women have higher incidence of multiple pregnancy.
7) Development of insulin resistance is more common in PCOS.
Tips to prevent Diabetes in PCO
1) Maintain a normal BMI, follow regular exercise protocols.
2) Low carbhydrate diet
3) Early consultation and treatment for ovulatory disorders and hyperandrogenemia
4) Regular screening for Diabetes in such cases detects diabetes in early stage and hence can be controlled without medications.
Obesity and PCOS
Read more about PCOS –
Obesity is a common finding in PCOS and aggravates many of its reproductive and metabolic features. About 25% of asymptomatic women with regular menses have PCO morphology on ultrasound. Many of these women have elevated androgen or luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, but some have normal reproductive function. Insulin resistance is a common finding in PCOS and is substantially worsened by obesity. Fasting insulin levels are increased in PCOS. Women with this condition are expected to have a high prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance. The risk for developing glucose intolerance is increased with increasing body mass index (BMI) and obesity.
Reproductive disturbances are more common in obese women regardless of the diagnosis of PCOS. Obese women are more likely to have menstrual irregularity and anovulatory infertility than normal-weight women. Weight reduction can restore regular menstrual cycles in these women. In obesity increased androgen production has been reported especially in women with upper-body obesity. In PCOS bioavailable androgen levels are increased especially with central obesity. Androgens play an important role in determination of body composition.