Cancer Screening

[su_quote style=”default” cite=”” url=”” class=””]The main targets of cancer screening are to: Early identification of the cancer when it is in a treatable condition and reduce the number of people who die from the disease. [/su_quote]


What are the types of Breast cancer Screening tests?

  • Mammography. Mammography is a type of x-ray that can show tumors or irregularities in the breast n very early stage when it can be treated safely.
  • Clinical breast examination. We can detect mass or lump in the breast manually . A medical professional looks and feels for any changes in the breast’s size or shape and skin of the breasts and nipples.
  • Breast self-examination.  woman looks and feels for changes in her own breasts.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).This test is helpful for women with a higher risk of breast cancer, those with dense breasts, or when a lump is found during a breast examination.

What are the types of Cervical cancer Screening tests?

  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. This test may be done alone or combined with a Pap smear test . An HPV test may also be done on a sample of cells from a woman’s vagina that she can collect herself.
  • Pap smear. A Pap smear, also called a Pap test, is a screening procedure for cervical cancer. It tests for the presence of precancerous or cancerous cells on the cervix. This test also uses cells from the outside of a woman’s cervix. A pathologist then identifies any precancerous or cancerous cells. This test may be combined with HPV testing.

[su_quote style=”default” cite=”” url=”” class=””]Increased testing. Doctors may run additional tests that a person may not need because of overdiagnosis and false positives. These tests can be physically invasive, costly, and cause unnecessary stress and worry. [/su_quote]

What are the types of Colorectal Cancer Screening tests?

  • Colonoscopy. This is a way of direct visualisation of the colon and its disease through a camera. This helps in examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD cameraor a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. It can provide a visual diagnosis (e.g., ulceration, polyps) and grants the opportunity for biopsy or removal of suspected colorectal cancer lesions.During this procedure, the doctor inserts a flexible, lighted tube called a colonoscope into the rectum. The doctor is able to check the entire colon for polyps or cancer.
  • Sigmoidoscopy. The doctor uses a flexible, lighted tube called a sigmoidoscope to check the lower colon for polyps and cancer. The doctor cannot check the upper part of the colon with this test.
  • Fecal occult blood test (FOBT). This test finds blood in the feces, or stool, which can be a sign of polyps or cancer. There are two types FOBT: guaiac and immunochemical.
  • Double contrast barium enema. This is an x-ray examination of the colon and rectum. The barium enema helps the outline of the colon and rectum stand out on the x-rays. Doctors use this test to screen people who cannot have a colonoscopy.
  • Stool DNA tests. This test analyzes DNA from a person’s stool sample to look for cancer. It uses DNA changes found in polyps and cancers to help a doctor decide whether a colonoscopy is needed.

How the Lung cancer Screening is done?

  • Low-dose helical or spiral computed tomography (CT) scan. A CT scan creates a three-dimensional picture of the inside of the body with an x-ray machine. A computer then combines these images into a detailed, cross-sectional view that shows any abnormalities or tumors.

How the Prostate cancer screening is done?

  • Digital rectal examination (DRE). A DRE is a test in which the doctor inserts a gloved lubricated finger into a man’s rectum and feels the surface of the prostate for any irregularities.
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. This blood test measures the level of a substance called PSA. PSA is usually found at higher-than-normal levels in men with prostate cancer. However, a high PSA level may also indicate conditions that are not cancerous.

How the Skin cancer Screening is done?

  • Complete skin examination. A doctor checks the skin for signs of skin cancer.
  • Skin self-examination. People examine their entire body in a mirror for signs of skin cancer. It often helps to have another person check the scalp and back of the neck.
  • Dermoscopy. A doctor uses a handheld device to evaluate the size, shape, and pigmentation patterns of skin lesions. Dermoscopy is usually used to for the early detection of melanoma.


[su_quote style=”default” cite=”” url=”” class=””]There can be risks of screening procedures: False positives. Sometimes a screening test will suggest that a person has cancer when they do not. [/su_quote]